CAN COMPUTER SPEAK? LANGUAGE AND ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE

 

 

CAN COMPUTER SPEAK? LANGUAGE AND ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE

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artificial intelligence final

Debaprasad Bandyopadhyay *

^ দেবপ্রসাদ বন্দ্যোপাধ্যায়

 

ABSTRACT

 Speaking/Hearing Subject(S/HS) is  desiring  to be a machine:

 Machine= f (S/HS)

 Non-algorithmic zones of Speaking/Hearing Subject with n-nary options are annihilated. Meaning is solidified, condensed. Corpse of corpus is clerically explored. Binary machine does not understand what “understanding” is. Do we not consider Russell’s paradox or Godel’s theorem here or are making fun with non-biodegradable and disposable ostentatious talking toys?

 The status of COMPUTATIONAL LINGUISTICS is questioned here from four perspectives: from the standpoints of (a) Philosophy of science, (b) Natural Science (mismatch between human Cognitive domain and machine algorithms) (c) Social Science (Plurilingual Planning), (d) Algocentricism (in contrast with post-formal subjective and substantive task of Linguistics). These problems are summarized as follows:

  1. PHILOSOPHY OF SCIENCE PROBLEM

THERE IS NOTHING CALLED “PEN-PAPER-CARD LINGUISTICS”

IF COMPUTER MANIPULATES LINGUISTIC DATA THROUGH THE “PEN-PAPER-CARD” METHOD

IS IT JUSTIFIED TO LABEL IT AS A SEPARATE DISCIPLINE?

WHAT IS THE EPISTEMOLOGICAL STATUS OF CORPUS LINGUISTICS???

 

  1. NATURAL SCIENCE PROBLEM

 

MATCHING CONDITION BETWEEN “HUMAN COGNITIVE DOMAIN”

&

“MACHINE ALGORITHM”

[Identity in Difference between computer and human being]

[a] RUSSELL’S PARADOX

GODEL’S/ CHURCH’S THEOREM

[b] PROBLEM RAISED BY PENROSE (1990,1994)

&

SEARLE’S CHINESE ROOM PUZZLE

[C] COMPUTER’S HALTING PROBLEM

[d] FUZZINESS OF NATURAL LANGUAGE

[e] POST- FORMAL APPROACH THAT DENIES ANALYTICAL PROCEDURES PROPOSED BY STRUCTURALISTS

  1. PROBLEM OF ALGOCENTRICISM

Metamathematical algorithmic procedural rules ignore the non-algorithmic constitutive rules (?) of human cognition.

 

  1. SOCIAL SCIENCE PROBLEM

PLURILINGUAL LANGUAGE PLANNING

ELECTRONIC CAPITALIST INTERVENTION IN LANGUAGES

THE EMPIRE OF HYPER-REAL, Simulation……..

NEOLOGISMSAlgocentric Discourse, Electronic Capitalism

TWO INSTANCES OF NON-COMPUTABILITY

 

(1) FUZZY NUMERALS

One thing is certain that meaning is uncertain. What a paradox! Aporia! Invented numerals are fuzzy—indeterminacy prevails. An ostentatious toy was made—a fuzzy game.  (S)talker tried to depict some non-deterministic and uncertain phenomena revealed in the expressions of numerals by Bangla speakers. The points of arguments are as follows:

  1. Human quantification is partly or fully different from analyst’s rigorous quantification.
  2. The following corpus from Bangla has a peculiar nature of non-componentiality or they are rather prototypical.

 

This prototypical nature of fuzzy numerals cannot be handled in computational framework or even  in the Logical Form. The first set of data deals with idiomatic expressions like:

  1. Sat-paMc  Seven-five “pros and cons”;
  2. nOy-chOy nine-six “topsy-turvy”;
  3. unis-biS, nineteen-twenty “trifle difference” jaHa bahanno taHay tippanno.
  4. jaHa baHanno, taHai tippanno “Whatever is fifty-two, that is fifty-three” (i.e. 52=53) “A trifle difference does not count.”

 

The second problem may be termed as “one is not equal to one” problem. A rule of “one deletion” was proposed by Probal Dasgupta (1987).

5 dokanduTo shop-two-classifier.

6.dokanTa shop-singular-classifier.

Obviously, “one” is deleted in 6. However, Dasgupta mentioned that ‘one deletion’ is not true in the cases like

  1. jOlTa, Water-classifier or
  2. telTa oil-classifier. In Bangla, one cannot say
  3. *EkTa jOl ‘One-classifier Oil”

However, there are some pragmatic cases where such expressions like 9 is possible. The Speaking  subject’s perception may still be “one” in those cases– it is ‘one’ as a mass body. Of course, this is not a deterministic physical ‘one’, but one as a whole. When any Bangla speaker says,

  1. phrij theke jOlTa ano. fridge from water classifier

bring “Bring water from the fridge.”,

his/her intention is to refer “one bottle of water”. Therefore, ‘one” is there in the D-structure, but it is a fuzzy one. The concept of this fuzzy “one” may  be further illustrated in the following movement- transformations, where deterministic numeral expressions are changed to non-deterministic Determiner Phrases:

11.a) paMcTa five-classifier (definite)

11.b) goTa paMcek classifier( indef. ) five-one “more or less five “

12.a) paMcjon five-classifier (definite)

12.b) jona paMcek classifier( indef. ) five-one “more or less five “

13.a) paMckhana five-classifier

13.b) khan paMcek ,classifier( indef. ) five-one “more or less five “

14.a) paMc Hajar “five thousand”

14.b) Hajar paMcek thousand five-one. “more or less five thousand”

15.a) paMc lakh, five lacs

15.b) lakh paMcek lacs five-one “more or less five lacs”

 

Examples like 11-15 show those deterministic expressions in (a) and non-deterministic expressions in (b). Compared to (a), examples in (b) show the fronting of classifiers with subsequent morphophonemic change and an addition of /ek/ “one” to the specific numeral x. This one is not deterministic +-1, but this “one” has a range more or less than +- 1.

These Bangla numeral expressions show the world-views of the community concerned with a special reference to their psychophysical way of looking at things (perception) and ways of making order of things (understanding). Therefore, it is a hermeneutic problem that involves the relative gap between human perception and understanding in relation to their habitat. The range of +-1 is different in different persons belonging to different socio-economic classes or even it may be different in a single person in different psychosocial context. A game had been developed by his engineering students

 

(2) PERCEPTUAL AND GRAMMATICAL TIME

Perceptual time is supplemented by grammatical tense. Do we need to deploy tensor calculus here? That is ridiculous. Let us watch the watch in the time of eco-enemy technocratic society guided by technical rationality.

There are different types of time, (a) technological time as it is followed by watching the watch by selecting a norm (GMT); (b) grammatical time as it is revealed in the textbooks of Grammar; (c) perceptual time as it is perceived by the speaking subjects of a given speech community; (d) Scientific time as it is calculated by the locus of the perceived by deploying Tensor Calculus. The author showed that the prescriptions of grammatical time do not match with the perceptual time of different communities. The author argued that the tenses and aspects as categorized in the Bangla prescriptive grammars ignore the perceptions of the construct “time” by the speakers of the imagined community “Bangla” as the conjugational paradigm in the Bangla grammar book is the mimicry of English prescriptive grammatical paradigms, e.g.,

  1. ami tomar baRi kal jacchi

I your house tomorrow go present continuous

“ I am going to your house tomorrow”

  1. ami tomake kal rastay dekhechi.

I you dative yesterday road locative see present perfect

“I have seen you on the road yesterday.”

In the case of 1, all the Bengali-speaking informants perceived /jacchi/ as future tense (I will go..) and in the case of 2, /dekhechi/ is perceived as past tense (I saw) instead of prescribed “present perfect” (which is traditionally used to denote “immediate past), though prescriptive grammar categorically put an imperative for not using “present perfect” in the sense of past (cf. Chattopadhyay, 1939: 322). It is matter of wonder that there is no linguistic work so far on the perceptual time in Bangla.

This paper also concentrated on the semiotics of time in Cinema or particularly on the concept of time in the hyper-real, real (as it is symbolized) and in the ir-real. The author compared the difference between “reel” time and “real” time at the moment of perceiving hyper-real. As the author has dealt with the subjective perceptions of time in different locus and contexts by different individuals of different imagined communities, it is concluded that there is no generalized objective parameters for the historical a priori, “time”.

ANOTHER SIDE OF THIS NARRATIVE

Algorithms are used to simulate intonation:MUSICKING AND SPEAKING: DIFFERaNCE (SEGMENTING THE SUPRASEGMENTALS) Download (.pdf)

 

APPENDIX

In the beginning of my career, I dare to ask Chomsky all about this man-machine equation; about impossibility of Artificial Intelligence; about his algocentric discourse that follows machine algorithm(especially the use of the term ‘computation’); about his model-theoretic approaches….

His answers are as follows:

chomsky letter

chomsky letter page 2

 

 

For detailed discussion, kindly follow hyperlinks (blue-colored titles)  

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

TAG:Cat.fr.nhttp://cat.inist.fr/?aModele=afficheN&cpsidt=2458695

 

See also: CAN COMPUTER SPEAK? Collection http://www.scribd.com/collections/3354649/CAN-COMPUTER-SPEAK

 

DigiArt: Akhar Bandyopadhyay

 

 

 

About Debaprasad Bandyopadhyay

Debaprasad Bandyopdhyay (b. 1965), through his 25 years journey in the realm of institutionalized academics did 27 different types of works, which are someway different from the earlier paradigms or, one might say that those works are not only mere reproductions of his inherited institutionalized cultural capital or a mimicry of a colonially imposed model that leads to intellectual anorexia or rather a type falsification of earlier paradigms. However, that might be not only a lofty claim but it also hid the fact that all our information and knowledge are socially accumulated knowledge that was, it is matter of regret, posed as private property through the sign © and the wisdom is rarely available. Bandyopadhyay’s works and projects are the products of his social milieu. Bandyopadhyay is a local sub-altern public sphere academician, who avoids the technical intelligentsia (followers of Sahib’s models and they are not committed to the persons who are accommodating surplus work-time to them by performing surplus labour) or inorganic intellectuals and thus fails to be a part of academic tribe and its subsequent socialization process. Of course, that socialization process does not lead to legendary Socratic dialogue. He is also a political activist though he has not affiliated to any political parties as he was always talking about the corporatization of political parties within the money-sign-based democratic system. He is a regular participant in TV and radio talk-shows and documentary films, street-corners’ talks and International seminars on socio-political, psychological, linguistic, environmental and economic issues. He also writes editorial columns in newspapers. He is also a part of parallel academics as it is found in West Bengal’s Little Magazine Movement, though that was not counted as the part his academic pursuit by his parent institute. His parent institute justifiably does not believe in the domain of parallel academics as this unorganized sector does not directly contribute in the transactions of formal/organized print capitalist eco-enemy paper-publication. Though the dissemination of knowledge is also observed in this space of these parallel academics as all these writings in public sphere simultaneously influence the classroom-discourse and some of them are translated into English, French and Italian. Not only that, Bandyopadhyay also sought engagement with the people, who, by supplying their surplus labour, are sustaining his livelihood. Bandyopadhyay, a linguist by training and a Ph.D.-holder (1996), a junior lecturer (1999-2011) in an autonomous central government institute in India, tries his best for those from he has received and is receiving the manifestation of surplus labour by executing some self-funded projects on economic issues in West Bengal, India. Recently he has got a consolation promotion to the post of Assistant Professor. He has done following 27 research works: 1. Crippled Creativity: An inquiry into language, psyche, society: 2. VALENCY OF BANGLA VERB AND PROBLEM OF COMPOUND VERBS: 3. Archaeology of Bangla Grammar : 4. CAN COMPUTER SPEAK? 5. FUZZY LOGICAL EXPRESSION IN BANGLA : 6. FOLKLORE AND FOLK-LANGUAGE: MYTH OR REALITY? 7. HISTORICISM IN THE DISCOURSE OF BANGLA LANGUAGE AND LITERATURE 8. ABHABA, ECP, DELETION AND TRACE 9. SVATVA OR MY-NESS AND ECONOMIC ENTITLEMEMT 10. TRANSLATION STUDIES 11. MASCULINITY STUDIES 12. YAYATI & BABAR COMPLEX 13. SOCIO-ECONOMIC SURVEYS IN AGRICULTURE AND INDUSTRY IN WEST BENGAL 14. CONCEPT OF BODY IN INDIAN PHILOSOPHY AND ARCHITECTURE 15. THE CONCEPT OF ERROR (KHYATI) IN MAD-(WO)MEN’S LANGUAGE 16. THE CONCEPT OF PERCEPTUAL TIME AND GRAMMATICAL TIME IN BANGLA 17. BANGLA CALLIGRAPHY, LANGUAGE ART AND LINGUISTIC PEDAGOGY 18. WO(L)D SPACES: NON-EXISTENCE OF WORDS 19. ANEKANTA METHODS 20. SILENCEME: SILENT OTHER IN LINGUISTICS 21. IMAGINED BOUDARIES AND PRE-COLONIAL INDIAN IMAGI-NATION 22. MAKING OF THE INDIAN PHILOSOPHY OF SCIENCE 23. SEGMENTING THE SUPRASEGMENTALS : MUSICKING IN SPEAKING 24. INTERPRETING GENETIC STRUCTURE BY DEPLOYING LINGUISTIC STRUCTURE 25. GLOTTOPOLITICS OF LINGUISTIC SUBALTERNITY OR AN AGENDA FOR PLANNING FROM BELOW 26. SEMIOTICS OF PHOTOGRAPHY 27. SOCIOLOGY OF CONTEMPORARY ACADEMICS
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