ENVIRONMENTALISM: THE ROLE OF SOCIAL SCIENCE AND HUMANITIES (ECO-ECONOMICS OR GEO-SOCIOLOGY?)

Categorized research-works of Debaprasad-29

 

 

ENVIRONMENTALISM: THE ROLE OF SOCIAL SCIENCE AND HUMANITIES (ECO-ECONOMICS OR GEO-SOCIOLOGY?) 

Debaprasad Bandyopadhyay *

^ দেবপ্রসাদ বন্দ্যোপাধ্যায়

Abstract

 

The following papers, mainly written in Bangla, concentrate on the roles of social science and humanities in the domain of specialized environmental science. If the disasters caused by climate change are believed to be inevitable fact, as predicted by some of the scientists, what shall be done by the social “engineers” (!)? Is it not the moral responsibility of the organic intellectuals, barring technical intelligentsia, to leave their mechanical reproduction of cultural capital and join their hands to reduce the poisonous effects of contemporary military-industrial society?

Many of them, specially my institutional colleagues (both geologists and economists) do not ‘believe’ the entire notion of anthropogenic global warming and the sustainable retreat from the developmental paradigm is not in their priority list; some of my communist friends and students do not care  for such ‘myth’. All of them ridicule me for my concern.

However, my body is burning. I have never felt such heat. I can’t cope   with this situation….. (cf. Anthropogenic Global Heating and the Condition of Creative Speaking Subject) I, a member of social scientist tribe, subjectively felt this unusual warming with my corporeal, not with the scientific devices or instrumental rationality…..

When I wrote a series of articles on the conditions of Jute mills, brick industries and mines and in quarries West Bengal (cf. অর্থ-নেতি NEGATION OF ECONOMICS) l, one of his empathetic geologist friends suggested that all these writings should be categorized under a new discipline: Geo-Sociology (sociological interpretations of geology). I loved that name though I was thinking about another discipline, another portmanteau word: Eco-Economics—Ecology plus Economies, but not about Econophysics, where the fallacy of misplaced concreteness is evident enough as supposed nature is confused with supposed cultural phenomenon.    

However, it is not the time for creating a new disciplinary technology—it is high time for retreating from the civilized funded developmental paradigm. A popular Hollywood movie messaged: “Now we do not need engineers; we need farmers—caretakers of earth!”(Not a verbatim), but, it is matter of regret, my academic training did not facilitate me to perform farming, animal husbandry or weaving, i.e. socially necessary labor instead that had alienated me from the supposed ‘nature’! I had realized such alienation, when I had seen the supplementation of green architecture by anti-green buildings (cf.  in an institute of science. If SALE-brated scientists (many of them are Padmashree and Bhatnagar-awardees) are digging their own grave, who am I to speak?  

 

SUMMARIES OF THE MAIN ARTICLES:

নিসর্গ নিয়ে ভাবনা: একাধিক সমবায়ী প্রয়াস Re-Thinking Environmentalism

There are five parts in this booklet on non-conventional environmental science:
[a] A prologue written by Bandyopadhyay on the issues of image processing and remote sensing techniques by means of which the wealth of the earth is ruthlessly extracted by hedge account holders by using satellites and surveillance helicopters with rudders that emit gamma-rays, infra red etc. According to Bandyopadhyay that type of planetary–corpo[rate]real politics led to anthropogenic climate change. He also cited Lila Majumdar’s prediction from a science fiction [1983] according which, the ice were not only melting but the axis of the earth was also displaced due to violent anthropogenic intervention into the corpoREAL of the earth. Surprisingly enough, that prediction in the eighties of the last century was subscribed by the Geo-Physical Society’s Report [2008].
[b] Bandyopadhyay then wrote a lengthy report on the basalt [a ‘minor’ mineral as per legal term] quarries of Birbhum, West Bengal, India, where a kowm [Bandyopadhyay was reluctant to use the term ‘tribe’ for a group of homo sapiens] is exploited illegally with slim wage and had become null workers—with or/and without existential status. This report, written in a feminist narrative style through the voice of a victim of West Bengal academiocracy, was published in 2008 “পাথুরে জীবনের কথা” ” [Life in the Stone Quarries].Sen, Ashok ed. Baromas. XXX. (pp.145-51)] and in this re-presentation the whole scoop was extended with many theoretical tools, viz. the question of ownership [svatva, cf. “স্বত্ব নিয়ে সমস্যার নিবেদন” (On my-ness and economic entitlement) and Language: From I-Dentity to My-Dentity] of land, anti-green architectural imperialism etc. He also cited new Minor Mineral Acts to show the lacuna of administration, who, surprisingly enough, [voluntarily?] did not even know it. Environmental laws are also violated and the administration was merely a puppet.

[c] Bandyopadhyay repeatedly visited the geo-political areas of Birbhum, Bankura, Medinipur, Purulia and Bardhaman, West Bengal, India in 2010 and the report was published in a newspaper [2010. পাথরে পাথরে নাচে আগুন (Dances of Fire in Basalt Quarries). Post-Editorial column. Chattopadhyay, Suman ed. Ekdin. 17/09/10 (pg.4)] and here re-presented by deploying theoretical tools.
The situation was worst at that time. The kowms were revolting against disembodied owners [a specter-like entity. Though they were not owners, they were enjoying the ‘tribal’ land that could not be ‘owned’ by the so-called non-tribal people. (cf.“চোট-পাট বেত্তান্ত [Jute Industry in West Bengal]”) in guise by means of huge money-sign] of the quarries. These disembodied owners also took revenge with armed goons. So-called Maoists were also reigning with arms and ammunition. Bandyopadhyay observed [1] the ‘Maoist’ terrorism was a construct of state-corporate-sponsored political parties-industrialist/hedge account holders collusion and the Maoists had nothing to do with the Maoism as an ideology per se [2] and thus it is a simulated war for the strategic evacuation of the land so that the collusion could establish ownership of the wealth underneath; [3] despite the fact of simulation [a la Baudrillard] of irreal, ‘real’ was the DEATH/TERMINATION/ANNIHILATION of many homo sapiens as well as flora and fauna of the ‘natural’ geography of the above mentioned four districts; [4] the Malthusian mindset of the collusion was also discussed; [5] State controlled [legal] terrorism was reflected in the mirror of state-sponsored/-branded terrorism through mutual resemblance [anyonyopratibimba] or reverse mimicry.

[d] This self-funded qualitative survey with little bit of statistics, when was executed in the fields and with the help of Google Earth, Bandyopadhyay and Chakrabarti [at that time he was at the Boston University] were engaged in a lengthy dialogue, an ‘other’ session—they were rendezvousing through phones and E-mails. Both of them related this micro-incidence with the lager question of environmental disaster. Bandyopadhyay initially posed three problematic questions: [1] What was going on? [2] What was the matter? [3] What was to be done? Chakrabarti, after criticizing the organized institutionalized funded scientific enterprises born out of enlightenment-project, answered that [1] was the result of capitalocentric economy; [2] was the consequences of post-Manhattan project so-called ‘objective’ scientific enterprise; [3] would be solved by real politic of eco-ethos. Chakrabarti discussed the feminist positional subjectivity and Jaina anekantavada [theory of many probable perspectives] . Bandyopadhyay showed the instances of internal sabotages within the scientific enterprise that negated the hegemonization of single science by introducing the concept of “sciences” in plural number. He also questioned the nature-culture binary following Derrida.
[e] After finishing the three-years’ conversation, both of them proposed [1] economics of austerity; [2] real politic of eco-ethos; [3]Anekantavadin eco-ethos and of course [4] extinction of surplus labor extraction . The joint statement was written by Chakrabarti with little verbal input from Bandyopadhyay. Thus the booklet had become an instance of a performance of non-conventional environmental science.
It must be mentioned that the cover of this Bangla booklet was de-sign-ed by Debraj Goswami, who reinterpreted the sculpture, “Santhal Family” by the famous sculptor Ramkinkar Baij by inserting a bulldozer within it and thus captured the secret moment of primitive accumulation. In this way, the critique of ‘development’ was re-re-presented and had become part of the text. The photo of surveillance helicopter [Barughutu, Bankura], the secret moment of primitive accumulation, was captured by Akhar Bandyopadhyay and edited by Biswajit Biswas.

মুদ্রার অর্থ-নেতি (Negation of Money: After Reading Marx)

This paper concentrates on the discourse of Chapters 3, 4, 5, 6 of Marx’s Capital, Vol. I to understand the metaphysical nature of money-sign, though frequent references are made to Grundrisse, Mathematical Manuscripts and other chapters of the book, The Capital. Author (a) found the epistemic impact of the then scientific discourse in the Capital; (b) added a new variable N or ecological entitlement (this points towards scarcity of raw materials, unplanned utilization of which makes an impact on the environment)  in the circuit of c-m-c`; (c) discussed the role of hyper-real and irreal in case of monetary economy. The paper headed towards the concept of moneyless green society.

“চোট-পাট বেত্তান্ত [Jute Industry in West Bengal]”

The investigator, out of his severe guilt feeling as he is a member of the leisure class, executed some self-funded projects related to socio-economic conditions of West Bengal. One of them is jute industry in West Bengal, India. He had surveyed jute cultivation and industry(59 Factories). Methodologically speaking, he had not followed any statistical sample survey techniques as he wished to reject state-statistics unholy nexus following Foucauldian paradigm; secondly, under the deployment of scheduled survey techniques, subjects were objectified and they underwent metonymic transformation. According to investigator, a Foucauldian, that is a sever violence. Therefore, instead of this technique he followed his own version of qualitative ethno-methodology or snow-ball method for understanding such domains. His findings are as follows: • Economics is not a so-called natural science that could be guided by the laws of physics. Thus the universalization of economic laws is not at all possible. Econometric analysis does not able to predict future economic condition. • The governmental statistics does not match with the ground-reality narratives. • The so-called binary division between organized and unorganized sector does not work at all— a fuzzy zone of organized-unorganized sector has been evolved in the West Bengal industrial scenario. • The existence of disembodied (a phantom or ghost-like entity) owners of several industries has been observed in organized jute industry, coal industry as well as in unorganized basalt-quarries. • Due to automation and manipulative procedures taken by the owners of industries and due to the conversion of surplus labour-necessary labour ratio in the form of money-sign, null-workers are “working” without any work in the sphere of economy. The extraction is possible due to the diachronically accumulated surplus labor from the deceased null workers. Null workers exist and do not exist. • By the virtue of the labour of the deceased null workers, owners are creating a accumulative space, where one can convert money-sign to another money-sign, i.e., the domain of dangerous share market. Specters of the null workers are not at all haunting here, where capital to commodity transformation has become merely a place of conspicuous consumption of the minority super-rich people, who have the fetish for the ostentatious display of eco-enemy commodities. • The role of state is minimal—collusion of super-rich, a minority, is reigning with the help of ideological state apparatuses. • The investigator is emphasizing on using local terms to depict the nature of economics as it is found in glocal (global+local) context of West Bengal. If Sahibs could use so-called anti-languages like plum or lemon market, what is wrong with the terms like lokkhibar (no consuming day), tola (illegal levy), pORta (covert weight), gunda tax (tax to be paid to the goons), bani (the hidden residue of the gold at the time of reselling), Soru line (illegal path) phoRe (the ‘illegal’ agent), cinHat (signs or a type of archewriting that regulates the parallel market with legal conflict)? • The role of political parties here surprising enough. There is no question of ideology as advertised by the respective parties, rather they are using ideology as a mask. They are acting as private limited company as the corporatization of those parties guided by management gurus has successfully established in the dollar-controlled democracy.

“নেড়া বেলতলায় যায় কবার?” [Brick Industry in West Bengal]

After self-funded surveying of jute-industry, basalt quarries, consumerist wholesale-retail -ostentatious mall culture in West Bengal, India, the author ventured to reveal the nature of Brick industry in West Bengal and he connected it with the larger question of green architecture (as it was found in Indian Statistical Institute, Kolkata, in which hollow bricks were used once upon a time by minimizing the use of reinforced concrete and basalt-bitumen combination in the context of constructing roads,  but now the new buildings and concrete roads are perfect examples  of  ecological imperialism that metaphorically tallies with the mimic academic enterprise that practices clerical deployment of raw  data in a pre-given model), anthropogenic climate change, food scarcity etc. In this context, the question is: which one is “modern” architecture? Age-old hollow-brick-buildings, roads without pitch-bitumen, conservation of ponds, rain water harvesting or the recently built anti-green buildings?

The author showed, taking cue from history of Harappa-Mohenjo-Daro, that the unplanned usages of  top soils led to scarcity of ground-water   and lastly the end of the city that depends on the surpluses of village-economy.  According to Bandyopadhyay, anthroposes do not learn from the pages of history and they are executing same mistake by constructing damns. The author surveyed the adjacent areas of Farakka barrage, a single purpose damn to serve Kolkata port. The fact is that this dam disrupts the biodiversity as it ignores the neo-tectonic movement of the river Bhagirathi. It is also depriving Bangladesh, India’s neighboring country  from the free flow of water.

 

“(অন-)অর্থনীতিবিদ রবীন্দ্রনাথ” [City and Village” & “(Non-) Economist Rabindranath Tagore]”,

In this  paper,  the author tried to establish Rabindranath Tagore as a non-mainstream non-conventional economist/fiscal auditor on the basis of Tagore’s different texts, viz. novels, verses, songs, plays and essays. The author emphasized on the following points:

  1. a) Tagore thought that he was a parasite as he was not capable of doing necessary labor and he was depending on surplus labor of the other.
  2. b) According to Tagore, city is also a parasite as it is sucking the blood of the villages.
  3. c) Tagore reinterpreted the concept of necessary labor by introducing a new category: voluntary labor with pleasure/toiling with full of joissance and of course without alienation.
  4. d) He condemned the extraction of others’ labor-time/ surplus labor and criticized usuries.
    e) He had given the different semantics of private property, which was not merely property in the material sense of the term, but it is a possession of creative mind.
  5. f) Tagore interpreted money-sign as /taka-rupak/ “money-simile”, by means of which inequals have become equals by some necessary and sufficient conditions. In the “rupaka” figure of speech the identify and difference between the object compared and comparable are blurred.
  6. g) The “body-politic” of democracy is the joy-ride of the super-rich. Here “opinions are manufactured” (1924). Tagore anticipated the concept of dollar-vote and entered into the domain of political economy.
  7. h) Tagore introduced a novel concept of surplus freedom provided by the cessation of activities (karmavirati) / leisure (udbritto ObokaS) that could be executed if and only if the voluntary labor with pleasure might be performed.
  8. i) He introduced ecology as a variable as a part of his economics. This is one of the unprecedented contributions of Tagore. He was against the extraction of wealth of earth by the violent anthropogenic intervention.
  9. j) He emphasized on the passion of greed as a part of his epistemology. It can be reinterpreted in psychoanalytic terms.
  10. k) Tagore introduced “samavaya” (Co-operative) through the activities of a society called “Sriniketan”, though the semantics of this term is totally different. The author of this paper explained the difference between the detachable (samjoga) and non-detachable (samavaya)relations. As for example, suppose that we are connected by some non-eco-friendly electronic gadgets like CPU, satellites etc. , i.e. we are connected in the web—we have some definite relations. These relations can easily be disconnected according to our whims or by some catastrophic situation. However, may you detach the quivering and leaves when you perceive quivering leaves? This is another type of non-detachable relation, which is de-sign-ated as “samavaya”. The small-big i and I non-detachable relationship/communication without any instruments is something different from the anti-green techno-centric communication network between you and me.

(Kindly note that the escape route is depicted here following Tagore. Are we taking cue from ‘literature’ in combating the effects of anthropogenic global heating?]

বুনো রবি ঠাকুর ( Wild Rabindranath Tagore)

In the paper, the author extended the previous paper and described Tagore’s inclination towards ideal forest, hermitage, though the author pointed out some problems in Tagore’s discursive formation. However, the discontents of modern civilization were emphasized by referring to the problems of anthropogenic global heating. (See also: o King, Stop Killing Deer of Our Hermitage: Environmental consciousness in Indian science and technology)

O KING, STOP KILLING DEER OF OUR HERMITAGE Environmental consciousness in Indian science and technology

This paper is a simple refutation of the hypothesis, “Idealism is responsible for decline or decay of Indian science and technology.” What is branded as “Idealism” in opposition with Materialism (surprisingly enough, not with Realism!) and monotheism in Indian Philosophical thought, is not at all Idealism or Monotheism as it is perceived by the Westerners. This Western gaze and that allegation/hypothesis will be treated as purvapaksa (opponent’s view) and is  contested in this paper.
Instead, the author of this paper argues that the anticipation of pralaya (dissolution) or mahapralaya (great dissolution) due to anthropogenic intervention in the corporeal of prakrti led Indian thinkers to idealize the praxis of life in a “different” way.
This “different” way is revealed in phase of Indian history, known as agraha (3rd C A.D.), when it is observed, in that period onwards, that there were urban and monetary anemia. Lack of urbanization and money(-signifer)-less society are branded and perceived as a disease—anemia! After realizing the fate of two urbanizations, both of which were not sustained, it was a great decision to revert back to the life of aranyaka in connection with tapovana-culture. This point of departure or sustainable retreat from the developmental paradigm (“development” as it is understood today)  will be discussed with a special reference to Tagore’s “The Message of The Forest” (1919). The author of this paper will try to show the embedded environmental consciousness that believed in the least exploitation of nature, in Indian “scientific” thoughts and will compare that with contemporary (last stage of Anthropocene) situation, which is threatened by the anthropogenic global heating, the ultimate consequences of Industrial Revolution, 1750.

 For detailed discussion, kindly follow hyperlinks (blue-colored titles)

  1. বুনো রবি ঠাকুর ( Wild Rabindranath Tagore) Pathik Basu ed. Shrayan Yearbook 2015. (pp.86-98) Download(.pdf)
  2. মুদ্রার অর্থ-নেতি (Negation of Money: After Reading Marx)”.Basu, Pathik ed. pher Marx o Capital: Shraban, Manan, Nididhysan. (Mediation & Marxization: Capital) Vol. I. Kolkata: Shrayan. (pp. 226-48) Download(.pdf)
  3. O KING, STOP KILLING DEER OF OUR HERMITAGE Environmental consciousness in Indian science and technology” National Seminar on Science and Technology in Ancient India. University Grants Commission; Dept of Sanskrit, Lalbaba College, Belur; Ramkrishna Mission Vidyamandir. Nov 18, 2014.  Download (.pptx)

 

  1. Anthropogenic Global Heating And The Condition Of Creative Speaking Subject Swedish-Indian International Research Conference: LandPost: Language and Diversity in the Age of Post-Colonial Glocal Medialization. Download(.pptx)      Download (.pdf)
  1. মেঘবিষদূত (Poisonous Cloud Harbinger). Sabdo. I:3 (pp.5-6)
  2. (with Akhar Bandyopadhyay) নিসর্গ ভয়ংকর“Amra O Feluda” E-Pujabarshiki. (pp.89-98). Kolkata.
  3. (With Partha Chakroborti)নিসর্গ নিয়ে ভাবনা : একাধিক সমবায়ী প্রয়াস Re-Thinking Environmentalism Sarkar, Dibakar ed. Akkha(r)jatra. 10: 12 (pp.7-50)২০১২. পার্থ চক্রবর্তী, দেবরাজ গোস্বামী, দেবপ্রসাদ বন্দ্যোপাধ্যায়. “নিসর্গ নিয়ে ভাবনা : একাধিক সমবায়ী প্রয়াস”. দিবাকর সরকার সম্পা. অক্ষ(র)যাত্রা. ১০: ১২. (৭-৫০ পাতা). কলকাতা.  Download (.pdf)
  4. “(অন-)অর্থনীতিবিদ রবীন্দ্রনাথ” [City and Village” & “(Non-) Economist Rabindranath Tagore]”, [City and Village” & “(Non-) Economist Rabindranath Tagore]”, Sengupta, Arnab ed. Akkha(r)jatra. IX:11. (pp.7-46) Belghoria, Kolkata Reprinted in 2011. Barun Kumar Chakroborty ed. Anna Rabindranath, Nana Rabindranath. (pp.336-360), Kolkata: Pustak Bipani. ISBN 81-85471-106-1. Download (.pdf)
  5. “নেড়া বেলতলায় যায় কবার?” [Brick Industry in West Bengal] [Brick Industry in West Bengal] Sen, Asok ed. Baromas. Vol. 32 (pp.128-36) RNI:34830/78 Download(.pdf)
  6. “বি- কল্প-না [Imagining Alternatives with Possible Negations]”. Other Voice. (pp.21-44). August’10. Kolkata. Download(.pdf)
  7. “আইলা টুরিজিম: একটি বুর্জোয়া ভ্রমণ বেত্তান্ত”[Aila tourism: A Petite Bourgeois’ Travelogue]” Prasanta Chattopadhyay ed. Kalodhoni. 14:2 (pp.43-50) Download(.pdf)
  8. মহাভারতেতিহাস ও অবদমিত-এর প্রত্যাবর্তন: কৃষি [ Meta-History Of India & Return Of The Repressed: Agriculture] Meta-History Of India & Return Of The Repressed: Agriculture] Kalodhvani. XIV: 1. (pp.32-39) Download(.pdf) 

“পাথুরে জীবনের কথা” ” [Life in the Stone Quarries] [Dances of Fire at Basalt Quarries].  Sen, Asok ed. Baromas. Vol.30 (pp.145-51)  Download (.pdf)

  1. “হায় পথবাসী, হায় গৃহহারা” “Basu, Pathik ed. Swashroybhabana. Kolkata: Shrayansthal. (pp.239-64) Download(.pdf)
  2. “স্বপ্নলীলা : কেন আমি জন্ম নেব?”. [Dream-play: Why Should I Be Born?] [Dream-play: Why Should I Be Born?] Ed. Basu, Pathik manus Hoye oTha (understanding Children’s World). Kolkata: Shrayan.(pp. 224-37) Download (.pdf)
  3. “বহুশাখী বট ও মৃত কৃষ্ণচূড়া” lekhan. Kolkata: Indian Statistical Institute Club. (pp. 160-168) Download(.pdf)
  4. Glocal Hyperreal and the Sad Demise of the Corporeal: An Obituary“National Seminar on Food security in India.Indian Social Science Academy. Download (.pdf)

It is classified in the following SSRN abstracting journals: Food Politics & Sociology eJournal

  • Public Economics: Miscellaneous Issues eJournal
  • RCRN: Cultural Analysis (Topic)
  • Rhetorical Analysis eJournal
  • SRPN: Other Food Politics & Sociology (Topic)
  • Sociology of Innovation eJournal

About Debaprasad Bandyopadhyay

Debaprasad Bandyopdhyay (b. 1965), through his 25 years journey in the realm of institutionalized academics did 27 different types of works, which are someway different from the earlier paradigms or, one might say that those works are not only mere reproductions of his inherited institutionalized cultural capital or a mimicry of a colonially imposed model that leads to intellectual anorexia or rather a type falsification of earlier paradigms. However, that might be not only a lofty claim but it also hid the fact that all our information and knowledge are socially accumulated knowledge that was, it is matter of regret, posed as private property through the sign © and the wisdom is rarely available. Bandyopadhyay’s works and projects are the products of his social milieu. Bandyopadhyay is a local sub-altern public sphere academician, who avoids the technical intelligentsia (followers of Sahib’s models and they are not committed to the persons who are accommodating surplus work-time to them by performing surplus labour) or inorganic intellectuals and thus fails to be a part of academic tribe and its subsequent socialization process. Of course, that socialization process does not lead to legendary Socratic dialogue. He is also a political activist though he has not affiliated to any political parties as he was always talking about the corporatization of political parties within the money-sign-based democratic system. He is a regular participant in TV and radio talk-shows and documentary films, street-corners’ talks and International seminars on socio-political, psychological, linguistic, environmental and economic issues. He also writes editorial columns in newspapers. He is also a part of parallel academics as it is found in West Bengal’s Little Magazine Movement, though that was not counted as the part his academic pursuit by his parent institute. His parent institute justifiably does not believe in the domain of parallel academics as this unorganized sector does not directly contribute in the transactions of formal/organized print capitalist eco-enemy paper-publication. Though the dissemination of knowledge is also observed in this space of these parallel academics as all these writings in public sphere simultaneously influence the classroom-discourse and some of them are translated into English, French and Italian. Not only that, Bandyopadhyay also sought engagement with the people, who, by supplying their surplus labour, are sustaining his livelihood. Bandyopadhyay, a linguist by training and a Ph.D.-holder (1996), a junior lecturer (1999-2011) in an autonomous central government institute in India, tries his best for those from he has received and is receiving the manifestation of surplus labour by executing some self-funded projects on economic issues in West Bengal, India. Recently he has got a consolation promotion to the post of Assistant Professor. He has done following 27 research works: 1. Crippled Creativity: An inquiry into language, psyche, society: 2. VALENCY OF BANGLA VERB AND PROBLEM OF COMPOUND VERBS: 3. Archaeology of Bangla Grammar : 4. CAN COMPUTER SPEAK? 5. FUZZY LOGICAL EXPRESSION IN BANGLA : 6. FOLKLORE AND FOLK-LANGUAGE: MYTH OR REALITY? 7. HISTORICISM IN THE DISCOURSE OF BANGLA LANGUAGE AND LITERATURE 8. ABHABA, ECP, DELETION AND TRACE 9. SVATVA OR MY-NESS AND ECONOMIC ENTITLEMEMT 10. TRANSLATION STUDIES 11. MASCULINITY STUDIES 12. YAYATI & BABAR COMPLEX 13. SOCIO-ECONOMIC SURVEYS IN AGRICULTURE AND INDUSTRY IN WEST BENGAL 14. CONCEPT OF BODY IN INDIAN PHILOSOPHY AND ARCHITECTURE 15. THE CONCEPT OF ERROR (KHYATI) IN MAD-(WO)MEN’S LANGUAGE 16. THE CONCEPT OF PERCEPTUAL TIME AND GRAMMATICAL TIME IN BANGLA 17. BANGLA CALLIGRAPHY, LANGUAGE ART AND LINGUISTIC PEDAGOGY 18. WO(L)D SPACES: NON-EXISTENCE OF WORDS 19. ANEKANTA METHODS 20. SILENCEME: SILENT OTHER IN LINGUISTICS 21. IMAGINED BOUDARIES AND PRE-COLONIAL INDIAN IMAGI-NATION 22. MAKING OF THE INDIAN PHILOSOPHY OF SCIENCE 23. SEGMENTING THE SUPRASEGMENTALS : MUSICKING IN SPEAKING 24. INTERPRETING GENETIC STRUCTURE BY DEPLOYING LINGUISTIC STRUCTURE 25. GLOTTOPOLITICS OF LINGUISTIC SUBALTERNITY OR AN AGENDA FOR PLANNING FROM BELOW 26. SEMIOTICS OF PHOTOGRAPHY 27. SOCIOLOGY OF CONTEMPORARY ACADEMICS
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